The first information about the existence of microorganisms in nature received from the Dutch naturalist Anthony Le venguka (1632-1723). With the help of an optical device manufactured them – a microscope, magnifying the image up to 300 times, Leeuwenhoek saw a drop of "rotting" of water, plaque, and feces everywhere showed the smallest living beings. Opening Leeuwenhoek was the beginning of the development of science of microbiology. Intensive development microbiology was the second half of XIX century. The French scientist Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) proved that the cause of fermentation and putrefaction, but also cause infectious diseases in humans and animals are micro-organisms. For prevention of communicable diseases, he developed special products – vaccines. Learn more at: Oracle. At the same time a German scientist Robert Koch (1843-1910) developed the basic methods of microbiological analysis, through which science Microbiology has been further developed. He opened the agents of tuberculosis (1882) and cholera (1883).
A prominent role in the development of microbiology has played a Russian scientist II Mechnikov, who created the doctrine of immunity (Immunity) of an organism to infectious diseases. Vinogradsky at the end of the XIX century., Studying soil microbes and showed their role in the cycling of matter in nature and laid the foundations of 'agricultural microbiology. In 1882, Russian scientist DI Ivanovski were first discovered viruses – organisms that are not visible even under the ordinary microscope, numerous agents of human diseases, animals and plants. Studies of microbes and their use in Industry provided a number of valuable products for the national economy. (Microbes are used in the production of lactic, citric and other acids, acetone and butyl alcohol.) Yeast cells are circular, diameter of about 10 microns. For more information see this site: Verizon. Yeast cell consists of a membrane, protoplasm and nucleus. In the cytoplasm there are valyutinovye grain. Reproduce by budding, a direct division, sometimes disputes or sexually.
Yeasts are active activators of alcoholic fermentation. Widely used in the brewing industry, bakery, a wine industry and other industries. Contain a large amount of valuable food protein and vitamins, and therefore used as a food supplement for people with poor health, under certain metabolic diseases and lack of vitamins (hypovitaminosis). Specific types of yeast which cause disease in man – blaetomi-goat. Imperfect fungi. Multiply by simple division or by spores. Among the large number of imperfect fungi, there is a group of pathogens that cause several human diseases (scab, ringworm ringworm, thrush, etc.). Ray fungi (actinomycetes), multiply by fission or spore formation, are found in soil and in grass plants. There is a group of pathogenic actinomycete causing major disease cattle and humans – ak tinomikoz. Of the ray fungi produce antibiotics – streptomycin and other spirochetes have the form of filaments, which helically "wound" tape of protoplasm. Nuclear matter is distributed throughout the protoplasm. Have the ability to actively flex, mobile. Propagate by dividing the cross. To include syphilis spirochete, relapsing fever and other infectious diseases.
But U.S. researchers at Texas Tech University have discovered a new kind of Amazon ants. I found an ant pale body color, no eyes. It said about the underground lifestyle. In place of the mouth are soft hairy pincers, which scientists believe are designed to chew small invertebrates. Forelimbs developed a much stronger back.
Scientists believe that a new species of ants is the oldest in existence. According to them, it is the same relative modern ants, as the platypus – a modern mammals. Scientists have discovered that butterflies have multiple systems to protect researchers from Cornell University found that the butterflies of the family Arctiidae (or bear), there are two warning systems of predators – a visual and audible. These mechanisms prevent necessary to protect the butterflies. When eating predators Arctiidae poisoning occurs, so that once you try it, they will bypass her side. On the bears hunt primarily bats and birds. At the same birds for hunting use vision, and bats – a rumor.
Scientists have put forward several hypotheses of occurrence of such multi-level security systems. One of them says that the simultaneous effect on hearing and vision to increase the efficiency warnings of one kind of predators. The second hypothesis is that the warning system are formed independently, each against a certain type of predator. Recent studies attest to this second theory. On Earth, marked the International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer on 16 September each year the Earth is the International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer – the 1994 General Assembly proclaimed 16 September the International Day Preservation of the Ozone Layer. Day established in memory of signing the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. It was preceded by the Vienna Convention, which was signed two years earlier. The main purpose of these two agreements is to prevent the destruction of the ozone layer by anthropogenic influences. As is known, ozone protects the earth from ultraviolet radiation, which is the main cause of melanoma and other skin cancers. Annually die from these diseases 66 000 people. For the first time in a decline in the Earth’s atmosphere stratospheric ozone layer that protects the planet from harmful solar radiation, scientists drew attention in the late 60s of the twentieth century. The Montreal Protocol has been to ban the production and consumption of 100 kinds of chemicals that deplete the ozone layer.
Equality between the value of goods and srednevidovoy cost of its production it struck many researchers, and so far strongly suggests the existence of a exchanging goods among the masses of some equivalence (on labor costs, utility, energy …), which in some mysterious way makes the fighters for the price to stop the fight, when the price of the goods, provides this equivalence. In the objective reality of equivalence really is the place to be, but not in commodities, but in the simple and obvious market forces that can be called the equivalent positions competing entities sharing, or benefits by the equality of competing entities exchange. Competing for buyers this factor is the equality of prices of goods from one-species of all sellers and all buyers. For single-species competing sellers to them is the equality of the price of labor per unit of product, and for raznovidovyh – equality of prices with equal quantities of labor costs, or equity gains from equal quantities of capital advanced. Formation of exchange satisfaction based on the principle – no worse than competitors, without realizing the global implications. The consequences of these factors are known: The prices of all products are single-species identical. Prices of labor srednevidovyh producers (with srednevidovymi conditions of production) are srednevidovymi. All srednevidovye price of labor will eventually become equal to one and the same – mid-market – value. That ensures the equality of prices of labor srednevidovyh manufacturers with equal quantities of costs, regardless of the type of commodity.