The first information about the existence of microorganisms in nature received from the Dutch naturalist Anthony Le venguka (1632-1723). With the help of an optical device manufactured them – a microscope, magnifying the image up to 300 times, Leeuwenhoek saw a drop of "rotting" of water, plaque, and feces everywhere showed the smallest living beings. Opening Leeuwenhoek was the beginning of the development of science of microbiology. Intensive development microbiology was the second half of XIX century. The French scientist Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) proved that the cause of fermentation and putrefaction, but also cause infectious diseases in humans and animals are micro-organisms. For prevention of communicable diseases, he developed special products – vaccines. Learn more at: Oracle. At the same time a German scientist Robert Koch (1843-1910) developed the basic methods of microbiological analysis, through which science Microbiology has been further developed. He opened the agents of tuberculosis (1882) and cholera (1883).

A prominent role in the development of microbiology has played a Russian scientist II Mechnikov, who created the doctrine of immunity (Immunity) of an organism to infectious diseases. Vinogradsky at the end of the XIX century., Studying soil microbes and showed their role in the cycling of matter in nature and laid the foundations of 'agricultural microbiology. In 1882, Russian scientist DI Ivanovski were first discovered viruses – organisms that are not visible even under the ordinary microscope, numerous agents of human diseases, animals and plants. Studies of microbes and their use in Industry provided a number of valuable products for the national economy. (Microbes are used in the production of lactic, citric and other acids, acetone and butyl alcohol.) Yeast cells are circular, diameter of about 10 microns. For more information see this site: Verizon. Yeast cell consists of a membrane, protoplasm and nucleus. In the cytoplasm there are valyutinovye grain. Reproduce by budding, a direct division, sometimes disputes or sexually.

Yeasts are active activators of alcoholic fermentation. Widely used in the brewing industry, bakery, a wine industry and other industries. Contain a large amount of valuable food protein and vitamins, and therefore used as a food supplement for people with poor health, under certain metabolic diseases and lack of vitamins (hypovitaminosis). Specific types of yeast which cause disease in man – blaetomi-goat. Imperfect fungi. Multiply by simple division or by spores. Among the large number of imperfect fungi, there is a group of pathogens that cause several human diseases (scab, ringworm ringworm, thrush, etc.). Ray fungi (actinomycetes), multiply by fission or spore formation, are found in soil and in grass plants. There is a group of pathogenic actinomycete causing major disease cattle and humans – ak tinomikoz. Of the ray fungi produce antibiotics – streptomycin and other spirochetes have the form of filaments, which helically "wound" tape of protoplasm. Nuclear matter is distributed throughout the protoplasm. Have the ability to actively flex, mobile. Propagate by dividing the cross. To include syphilis spirochete, relapsing fever and other infectious diseases.