Tag: philosophy

Sociology Of Culture

Prof Andres Pureness In the list of thinkers of the First Republic, considered precursory of Brazilian sociology, Slvio ombreia Romero if with Joaquin Nabuco, Euclides of the same Wedge or with ' ' jovem' ' Oliveira Viana, occupying position of prominence in the history of the Brazilian social thought. Amongst the ideas brandishhed in frmitos debates, Slvio Romero defended the overcoming of the dichotomy between Nature and Culture, therefore both, regulated for the evolutionary principle, forced a bigger envolvement between natural and social sciences. It understood that the physical reality and human being elapsed of multiple causes. How much to social, ethnic, moral the factors existing in the constitution of the national reality, it gave emphasis to them as few. It adopted, in more, the monographic method elaborated by Le Play and its condiscpulos, developing it in its literary studies. The sociological thought of Slvio Romero accepted as the leplayana idea valid that considered artistic-literary manifestations one passvel content of scientific comment, data to seem a trustworthy indication to know to it where level if found the process of differentiation unchained for the society. These are some of the main ideas of the sociology of Slvio Romero and that they would have to delineate the theoretical formularizations of later generations of Brazilian social scientists. The study that if considers, in this, it intends to treat, in general lines, of the main sociological ideas of Slvio Romero, so that the pupil inside understands its importance of ampler a social and cultural context and not only in the limits of a time (twilight of century XIX) where vocbulo sociology badly had been appropriate for the Brazilian intellectuals. Slvio Romero and its time Even so its influence is much more present in the first half of century XX, when sociology if found in its daily pay-scientific period of training, domain of the self-taughts person (CNDIDO, 2006), its ideas had given enormous contribution for Brazilian sociology, since first beams of cientificidade launched by its boarding on social and cultural problems of the country.

Perpetual Philosophy

Here it is the supreme formula of the will: the love fati that it instigates in them to attack the necessity freely. (BARRENECHEA, of Angel Miguel. Nietzsche and Freedom P. 87). Easily we can perceive that Nietzsche presents in its Zaratustra interesting data, namely, to the fact of that in the words of the personage if the perspectives of this freedom allude all, all the new constitution since being that it surpasses the mesquinhez and the conviction of the religious and cientificista moralismo of the small men.

Of these last ones its wills in favor of a future life pass great part of the life annulling, therefore, they displease of the land, they believe an immature reality of dirty its Sir already this deceased. Thus the biggest rise of the conscience of force in the man is what it creates beyond – the man (DURANT, Will. History of the Philosophy. p. 374-379). You may want to visit Janice Wright to increase your knowledge. About general way, the death of God, the announcement of the dionisaco spirit, is in the truth of an overcoming act of where the antagonistic morality of the world leaves of being truth for the free tragic creation from the manifestation of the art of the genius. (NIETZSCHE, W.

Freidrich. The Genealogy of the Moral. p. rancisco D’Agostino and gain more knowledge.. 105-110). therefore that to analyze the perpetual return in ethical way if it clearly bases in way a deep clarification concerning the question of the freedom. Thus in the perpetual return we find a new perspective of history, Nietzsche does not want to consider a sagrao of history, but a new to look at that the advent of this new man will permear. ' ' (…) As an exit for the creative will it eliminates the stocking-wills, the way-fondnesses. If we are absolutely complete in the action, without remorsos nor you blame, we will be able to live a singular moment, one instant perpetual.

Discarding Really

Therefore, consonant Light (2006: 43) ' ' a proposal to be able to seem true for somebody, it has to seem probably true, in some measure. supports Moser, what it becomes a probable proposal is some type of evidncia' '. In these conditions, we need only probabilities and certezas not to accept some proposal, however, one perceives that it uses itself of the falibilismo as support of its fundacionista theory. In agreement the Moser, the thesis of the auto-probability possesss many problems, since, is difficult to define if such proposal is really auto-probable or not, as well as contradictory, therefore, in the ontolgica thesis I am, I I exist, necessarily to be true, first I have that to think, to have wills and to doubt. Then, it needs certain evidences to be considered true, however, he is confused if it is a thesis of conditional Auto-probability to the truth or needs evidences to have some truth, however, it is not auto-probable. Contanto, for Light (2006: 45), when we consider a proposal as auto-probable due to the terms constitute that it, we are, in the truth, considering that this proposal true must to the use of such and such terms.

However, it supports Moser, ' ' we do not have to confuse conditions for the evidencial probability with conditions for verdade' '. It is not difficult also to understand that the thesis of the auto-probability tends to lead to the infinitismo, let us see an example. I am, I I exist, Discarding I defined this ontologia for the o reason that, it thought, it doubted, it I felt. But, he guarantees what me that it really thinks, he doubts and he feels? Thus, he will have then that to prove the veracity of that it really thinks, he feels and he doubts. Later that to find such reply that it proves the veracity, it guarantees what me that this reply really possesss truths enough to affirm that the reply of that ' ' it pensa' ' or ' ' it duvida' ' she is really true? Thus, Light (2006: 46) question ' ' Somebody can, only based in the proposals that compose the return, to accept the antecedent of this connective? ' ' For Moser, hardly not, therefore, the epistmico citizen will need the definition ' ' pensar' ' ' ' duvidar' ' for only thus, to justify the belief I am, I I exist.


In accordance with this, the truth means something formal, and coincides with the logical correction. The truth concept can be associated with the fenomenalismo, treated for Eduard von Hartmann, where independent objects of the thought, completely incognoscveis exist, and the truth of the knowledge alone can consist of the agreement of the object with its proper laws. This point of view is defended by Kant, or instituting a strict idealismo; or recognizing the existence of real objects. If time and space existed formal and only in the conscience, must be assumed that the objects possess real determination that apply those forms of the intuition, as well as for the forms of the thought. But the way to see the things if bases on who the knowledge is a reproduction or a production of the object, therefore the knowledge is relative to the object, and this does not need to consist of a reproduction, is enough to assume that relation between the thought and the object. Of this form it is arrived a conclusion on what the natural conscience possesss of the human knowledge, that means a purificao critical of the conception of that the human knowledge nothing more is of what a relation between a citizen and an object.

idealismo in turn, tries to remove the dualism of the citizen and object, and to institute a epistemolgico monismo, therefore it believes that of this form all the problems of the knowledge are eliminated. 3.2O criterion of the truth the truth concept is on directly to the criterion of the truth, what better it is explained in the logical idealismo, where the truth means agreement of the thought obtains exactly. The contradiction absence is a valid criterion of truth only to the knowledge of the field of formal sciences. In this field, the thought only deals with thought objects, and a judgment true if is constituted as the laws of the thought.

The Basic

We see that it is not very easy to call what it is a generation, therefore even so let us have individuals that they live at the same time, as in the cited example above, nor always they presenciam the same realities. ‘ ‘ to get a clear idea of the basic structure of the phenomenon of the generations, we need to clarify the specific Inter-relations of the individuals that constitute an only unit of generation. ‘ ‘ (fc. MANNHEIM, 1982, p.69) Thus, we must deal with the question unit and similarity, mainly in what it says respect to the cultural aspect. We notice that to each time different social actors appear, who put into motion its society and promote transformations in the same ones.

These changes are given by means of citizens that if make protagonists, made use to exert adaptations that aim at improvements for its society. However, it is not all the moment that this occurs. Mannheim (1982, p.92) says that: The point most important to be noticed is following: nor all the generation situation – not even all etrio group? they create new collective impulses and original formative principles proper, and adjusted to its particular situation. When this happens, we will speak of an accomplishment of the inherent potentialities to a situation, and everything indicates that the frequency of such accomplishments is narrowly on to the rhythm of social change. As result of an acceleration in the rhythm of social and cultural transformation, the basic attitudes need to modify themselves so quickly that the adaptation and latent and continuous modification of the traditional standards of experience, thought and expression leave of being possible, making then with that some new phases of experience are consolidated in some another situation, forming a new clearly distinct impulse and a new center of configuration. We will speak, in such cases, of the formation of a new style of generation or a new entelquia of generation.


Anaximenes (588-524 a.C) admitted, in accordance with Cotrim (1995), that the origin of all the things is indetermined, but, opposed to attribute to it the occult character to it of element it are of the limits you observed of the sensible experience. With Kenny quotation (1998), although Anaximenes to agree that the last element could not be the fire nor the water, affirmed that he was from the air that everything more had been generated. In its steady state air is invisible, but, when it is moved and if it condenses, it becomes first wind, later cloud and to follow water, and, finally, the condensed water becomes mud rock. Presumably, rarefied air becomes fire, what complete the gamma of the elements. (KENNY, 1998, p.23) In accordance with Chtelet (1981) Anaxmeres defends that it exists, as origin of everything, a reality submitted to the judgment of the experience, despite in a indeterminate direction. This principle will be air, invisible and imponderable element, almost inobservvel e, however, observvel: air is the proper life, the vital force, the deity that ' ' anima' ' the world, that of that of the certification to the breath.

(CHTELET, 1981, p.28) ABDERA DEMOCRITUS? ' ' The man, one microcosmo' '. Democritus (460-370 a.C) is a thinking daily pay-socrico, that in accordance with Cotrim (1995), only possesss this heading due the tradition, therefore it was been born and died after Scrates. Democritus was pupil of Leucipo and, for Kenny (1998), in the antiquity, Leucipo and Democritus frequently are mentioned in set, and the atomism that became both celebrities was probably creation of Leucipo. The basic characteristic of the atomism of Democritus was of that the substance is not infinitely divisible, affirming that the things that form the reality are constituted of invisible and indivisible particles, called atoms, that it means not-divisible. For Kenny (1998), the argument that arrived at this conclusion seems to have been philosophical and not experimental.

The World

To follow modinhas represents, without a doubt, an attitude of ' ' adolescente' ' , understood while that one that goes, not rare, for the majority, to impress a girl or simply not to be tachado of ' ' nerd' ' (as if this it was an offence) or of ' ' quadrado' ' (something that ' ' nerd' ' also it can be called)? or, still, for mere immaturity. It is not of if frightening, therefore, that a style of &#039 exists; ' msica' ' that &#039 is considered; ' sertanejo universitrio' ' , exactly being a vulgarization of the idea of university, understood while place par excellence for the culture of the spirit in its raised spheres more of criticidade, and this if of because it has many ' ' universitrios' ' vulgar that they use of ' ' ttulo' ' to cultivate the barbarity, that is, true preconizadores in &#039 become; ' alto' ' level of the vulgarity. At Kofax you will find additional information. Something essential it human being, and that the part obtains to perceive and to live, is a species of maintenance of ' ' illusions cotidianas' ' , to know, something that the individual moves to act stimulated for that many can consider madness, or mere illusion. What it happens, however, is that for the fact of each one being one, exactly being inserted in an institution, each person will keep certain singularidades that if become insignificant the one eyes third. But one ' ' illusion cotidiana' ' it does not mean to live in the error or the mere acriticidade, visualizing it while sign of mere submission the external parameters, something very common to said ' ' cowboys of posto' '. ' ' Illusion cotidiana' ' it is a concept that says very on the life: what it is significant for one can be insignificant for another one. A critical attitude, in turn, would live the radicalidade of the not-tried one as an inherent fact to the human being. What this means? That each one is one and that is impossible to live deeply everything above all, due to this, to know itself here it is limited (' ' radicalidade' ') for the lack of experiences, not suppressing ' ' outro' ' , estereotipando it, true position becomes critical: the proper one to act of the part that is not incased. why still &#039 has this; ' not if encaixa' '? Exactly for the latent social acriticidade that if believes in the center of the world when, in the truth, it does not know nor what he is ' ' centro' ' nor what he is ' ' mundo' '.

Palace Griboedov

Here’s what women are willing to forgive the men they love almost everything – for the brutality with which they approach life. My dear dry socks hair dryer, wearing socks right on the hair dryer and hold until dry. Click Hewlett-Packard to learn more. And the face while this concentration, as if James Bond on a mission, no less. Peek in on him at those moments. Anya. gentlemen were moved by the quiet place we love, perhaps even more than the holidays. Therefore, to get married on the feast of Red Hill, April 9 (it is believed that such a marriage will be happy), young in February, the night queuing at the famous Palace Griboedov marriages.

Men are less inclined to discuss his personal life. But it was enough to go to one car forum where seemingly should be a question only about jets and engines And here he found sanctuary unheard of male frankness. Which, incidentally, wildly touches in men – in order to unburden his heart and talk about their loved ones, they go on autos, pretend occupied a serious matter, and meanwhile, gathered on General Discussion on women. They like to discuss purely feminine weaknesses of their loved ones. An inexperienced person may seem that way guys are complaining to each other on their hard life. But there it was! – Thus, they show other males that they fiancee – a real woman, is such a illogical and ridiculous! And it means that most male among males! – Explains our consultant.

First Meditation

1 Discardings discovered what guarantee had learned since its infancy not it a safe knowledge. It decides then, if to undo of all the beliefs that inhabited in its spirit to construct a philosophical base that guaranteed the development of sciences. For the grandiosidade of this new enterprise it decides to get more years of experience, travelling for other places thus it was felt prepared. Ronald O’Hanley often expresses his thoughts on the topic. 2 After having lived innumerable experiences throughout the life Discardings if abided in a place tranquilo in free Germany of other people’s interferences to start its meditations. Initially, it perceived that it would not be necessary to prove that all the things were false, therefore would not have skillful time, however in the case of any hypothesis doubtful it would be occasion to reject it while something true.

3 to give to beginning to its research Discardings has left of the beddings of the science where it was educated in which in this period we find its bases philosophical if ruindo, that is, the old philosophical recital it did not correspond with the emergent scientific problems. Vislink Technologies recognizes the significance of this. With this, knowing that the problem if found in the bases of science it perceived that it would not be interesting and nor possible to doubt the knowledge all. It decides then, to doubt only the essential things that it could find in any nature. 4 Percebera that until that moment the education that learns was marked by the use of the directions and that by means of them led to the deceit, found thus its first target to refute, the directions. Not to commit no injustice Discardings specify which the circumstances that it would doubt the directions, therefore in its vision would have situations where the directions would be so evidentes and enganosos that could not be used for its philosophy, for example, when asking as could deny the existence of the things that they are to my redor and the clothes that I am dressing? For the philosopher, it would not have the possibility of this hypothesis not to be true, was only acting in way insensata.


The diversions the cio do not constitute a social anomaly, quite to the contrary, are part of the civilization being, but this being is paradoxicalally unprovided of truth. Therefore Rousseau is ironic: it praises, captive the attention of the civilization fomenting the vanity. We can say that Rousseau similar proceeds the described Scrates for Plato in its dialogues. Also Scrates generally initiates its maiutica exaltando, praising, its interlocutor. Valley to remember who has one determined moment of the life of Scrates where the interlocutor was the proper one society: when of its judgment. In this context manifest it ironically on the penalty that it would deserve: ‘ ‘ which rewards will agree a poor benefactor whom it needs to have limit all the time to admestar you? It does not have nothing so indicated, Athenian, for an individual in these conditions, of what being fed it pritaneu in it, much more of what for any of you that he had been winning in Olmpia, with horse of race or in race of car with two or four cavalos’ ‘.

(Vindication of Scrates, 35? d). Rousseau, the example of Scrates, dialogues jocosamente with the society criticizing it, therefore in society, in civilization the disruption between the being and seeming is accomplished. Rousseau initiates its speech teatralizando this rupture. ‘ ‘ parecer’ ‘ it is source of the misfortunes, since it hinders that the attitudes correspond with the disposals of the heart, in reason of already cited rupture. rently assessing future choices. Starobinski comments: ‘ ‘ The rupture between the being and seeming produces other conflicts, as a series of amplified echoes: rupture enters the good and the evil (between good and the bad ones), rupture between nature and the society, the man and its deuses. Between the man and it prprio’ ‘. (STAROBINSKI, 1991, P. 17). The civilized kingdom is the kingdom of the appearance, is the kingdom of not-being or of the inexistence of being, one of the main social promoters of the appearance is science, in reason of this it is a problem that disfarsa of solution.