Tag: construction and repair

Preparation Of Concrete Mixes

Concrete mix should be chosen to ensure that all defined features, such as in fresh and hardened state. In the selection of the composition, unless specifically spreading indicators (precipitation) of the cone of concrete mix and strength concrete in compression must be considered keeping the workability at various temperature-humidity conditions, the rate of shear strength, frost resistance, water resistance, the operating conditions of structures. When selection of the concrete, to which additional requirements (modulus of elasticity, stripping strength, tensile strength, corrosion resistance), should take into account the properties of raw materials and technology to produce a concrete mix. Others including Kurt Phelps, offer their opinions as well. In these cases, the composition of concrete, which provide the required performance on the workability and durability, tested for consistency with other indicators of quality. Tenneco can provide more clarity in the matter. If this condition is not satisfied, then make the selection of concrete with various modifying additives and technological fir techniques to ensure receipt of concrete containing all the indicators of quality. Concrete mix, intended for transportation by pipeline, should have high viscosity, homogeneous structure, and achieve the required physical and mechanical properties of concrete. Consistency of concrete mix should be selected to provide pumping it via pipeline to limit the distance (horizontally and vertically) without stratification and the formation of plugs in the pipeline under the influence overpressure.

Selection of the nominal composition of concrete produced during the construction of new structures and changes in consumer quality concrete production technology and properties of raw materials. Nominal concrete composition is selected from the materials, the most representative for the company, subject to the applicable technology preparation and transportation of concrete mixtures, methods of packing and storage regimes. Workers compositions are selected by adjusting the nominal compositions on the basis of data on the properties of concrete trial batches. The results of the selection of the nominal composition of concrete must be made in the journal selection of the concrete and approved by the manufacturer. Workers was drawn up for signature of the manufacturer's laboratory. Chemical additives are introduced into the concrete mixture in the form of a solution of working concentration. In the application of complex additives to prepare their solutions separately and mix these solutions in the water dispenser just before introducing them into the concrete mix. Duration of mixing concrete mix, including additives, established an experimental way of conditions to ensure homogeneity and qualitative characteristics of concrete.

Leaving A Window Open

Just the possibility of opening the window frame in two planes and commit them to the proper mode by itself solve the problem of lung ventilation of the premises without small transoms. Material for manufacturing eurowindows is laminated veneer lumber from softwood or hardwood. Application of the technology of laminated timber, where the three layers of wood are located in different directions of fibers provides a sturdy frame, are not subject to deformation, which means that they will serve their owners for many years to come. Used for bonding waterproof adhesive lamellae creates additional protection from the natural influences. Standard thickness of the frame – 78 mm, but may produce windows both larger and smaller thickness. As the light transmitting elements in the euro-windows used windows – two-or three-compartment. See more detailed opinions by reading what Nova Broadcasting Group offers on the topic.. To save heat and sound insulation in frames used double and sometimes triple loop seal. Eurowinows not need to seal the winter – bona fide manufacturer guarantees that the contiguity of wings against the window box.

Finnish windows have two sets of wings, fastened together with special fittings. In one of the valves installed windows in the other – ordinary glass. With such a construction to realize the opening of windows in the two planes is very difficult, although some companies claim to manufacture Finnish windows that can open and in vertical mode. Nevertheless, the classics of this type of windows are the standard models supplied, usually from Finland and opening as well as woodwork. To ventilate and provide small transom windows.

Properties Of Concrete In Low Temperatures

The problem of durability of concrete in the construction of structures used in harsh climatic conditions, is one of the leaders in scientific research both in Russia and abroad (USA, Japan, Canada, uk and etc.). Lower negative temperatures (down to -60 C), the long winter, sudden changes in temperature within a short time, the presence of permafrost leads to premature failure of concrete in various facilities. Studies have been conducted to enable a deeper understanding of the destructive processes that take place at cooling the concrete down to -60 C. Determined that when the temperature chilled to low temperatures and water-saturated concrete by one degree, in its structure having tensile stress of about 0,1-0,2 MPa. Rapid heating frozen concrete due to changes in air temperature at 15-20 C leads to the formation tensile stresses, comparable with the strength of concrete in tension. Analysis of changes in daily ambient temperature for five months with the lowest monthly average temperature has allowed to calculate more than 50 temperature changes with a difference of 15 C for three hours and more than 15 oscillations – with a difference of 25 C for 24 hours. The effect of cyclic temperatures in the range of negative influences on the gradual decrease in the elastic and mechanical characteristics of concrete and reduce its durability. To quantify this strength reduction was carried out laboratory tests on the cubes with an edge of 10 cm cubes made from concrete of different compositions, different consumption of cement, water / cement ratio and, consequently, the strength of concrete (see Table).

In the manufacture of cement grade M500 (Belgorod Plant), crushed granite fractions 5-10 and 10-20 mm in the ratio 1: 1, sand and fineness modulus of 2. Obratsemenztsy concrete, as shown in table formulations were tested for frost resistance on the basic method. Frost resistance of the samples with an open porosity of 4.1% of 300 cycles of 2 (Po = 5.6%) – 200 of 3 (= 7,5%) – 50. The samples were within 7 days in normal temperature and humidity conditions. Later they were saturated with water until a constant weight and placed in freezers, providing vibration the temperature range from -50 to -20 C and then subjected to cubic compression. A thin layer of ice on the surface of the blocks prevented the evaporation of moisture.

The test results accurately indicate a strong decrease in strength of concrete initial cycles of the alternating effects of subzero temperatures, resulting in migration of unfrozen water from the pores of the gel to the ice crystals in micro-and makrokapillyarah and as a result, the increase in these crystals. Decrease strength of concrete is largely dependent on the water / cement ratio (W / C). Very weighty drop in strength (30%) occurs in kubikovsostava 3 with the highest water-cement ratio (0,7). Accordingly, the trial confirmed that, in the northern climates concrete exposed to specific environmental effects that lead to a loosening of the material, which seriously reduces the durability of concrete and

Low Humidity

Humidification has a special role in providing comfortable climatic conditions in winter when, even at high relative humidity of air, its absolute water content is as generally very low. Proceeding to the room air is heated. Moreover, its absolute water content remains unchanged, and the relative humidity drops to 5-10%. For comparison, the relative humidity in the Sahara Desert did not fall below 15%! In order to maintain relative humidity at a comfortable level of 50% at room temperature 20 C is required artificial humidification, often enough intensive. In addition to providing comfort, maintaining the necessary level of humidity is also extremely important from the hygienic point of view. It is known that the bacterial flora (pneumococcus, staphylococcus, streptococcus) inhibited 20-fold intensively at a relative humidity of 45 to 55% than when humidity is above 70% and below 20%. Today humidifiers are divided into: steam (cold or hot steam) and ultrasound. The most simple form are humidifiers with a cold vapor.

In a special compartment filled with water that soaks into the cassette. Through this cassette is a normal room air, blown by fans humidifier. To achieve maximum the effect of such humidifiers should be placed near a heat source (eg, sink). The advantage of these models is the efficiency in electricity consumption, ease of use, quiet operation and Low price. The disadvantage is that these moisturizers will not do "rusty" water from the tap, but if you're still on a dare, you have to buy a special filter. Also, humidity control will depend not on your desire, but from the room air.

Humidifiers with hot steam, respectively, have a number of design features. In them, as in a normal kettle, the formation of steam from water by boiling it. This device itself will maintain the necessary humidity in the room, except when it is over water – itself off. This type of humidifier has a function, so to speak, family doctor. That is, can used for inhalation of air in the house, and hot steam is already kill all microbes. The drawback, steam humidifiers is perhaps only by their high power consumption, water consumption a little more than cold-steam humidifiers. The latest and most advanced type of humidifiers – ultrasonic humidifiers. Through high-frequency sound vibrations from the water a cloud of cold vapor. Air passing through a cloud, saturate with moisture, and the instrument adjusts the level (ie, humidity), depending on your desire in the range of 25-85%. The price of these humidifiers are much higher than that of steam, about 1,5-2 times. This Article courtesy of Air Alter () for the dissemination and popularization of our site. Alter Air – ventilation and air conditioning, dehumidifying the air in the pools.

Chimney Installation

Such details are: pipes, tubes with revision, tees, elbows, deflectors. They connect with each other due to the exact size and fitting secured with clamps. With this method of connection setup chimneys can made after the building in a short time. You can assemble any desired configuration chimney due to a large range of fittings. Here, Vislink Technologies expresses very clear opinions on the subject. The modular principle of installation provides the convenience, speed and cost jobs. Importantly, the modular chimney at any time be subjected to demolition. Consider these question on the example of installing a two-chimney system.

Installation of two-circuit chimney should start from the bottom (of the heating system) up. When installing the inner tube further element must be a member inside the tube of the previous item. This is to ensure that emerging condensate or falling into the chimney precipitation remained inside the chimney and did not fall on the heater. The outer tube (shell is), in turn, puts the previous one. Pipes should sit down with each other at a depth of planting, which should not be less than half the diameter of the pipe: a requirement of fire safety regulations. Depending on the design elements of a particular manufacturer, place of docking can condense or relevant clamps, or due to taper pipes.

For better sealing of pipes is desirable to use the sealant with an operating temperature of at least 1000 degrees. The joints of pipes with other elements of (tees, elbows, etc.) should be fastened together with clamps. For every two-meter chimney must be installed mounting bracket to the wall, and the tee should have the support bracket.


Warm floors – one of the solutions to create coziness and comfort in a house or apartment. With the help of warm floors to solve the problem of both the main and auxiliary heating. The latest version of underfloor heating are more effective solution than, for example, heaters. One option for floor heating is Metafields – the usual pipe mounted to the heating system or the pipes with hot water. Disadvantages: If there is dependence on a central system heating – the inability to control the temperature in the underfloor heating and a possible lack of pressure in the system for pumping pipes. There is also a real risk of damaging the battery during installation or during operation that will lead to overlapping of the riser. From the above we can conclude that Metafields more practical to use in your own home (country cottage).

Another variant of the floor heating – heating electric cable. This system can be used at any time of year, the floor temperature is regulated by termolegulyatora. It is possible to program the system to cycle. The security of this system ensures that breaker in case of disruptions in supply. Disadvantages: fast heating flooring leads to deformation thereof. Increased power consumption. Before you begin installation of underfloor heating, you need to remove the old floor and level the surface, do screed. The prepared surface is laid a layer of insulation. You may find baby clothes to be a useful source of information.

As the heat insulation of floor heating, you can choose polipenouretan or folgaizol. Placed on top tube (Usually the diameter is 20 mm) or electrical cable. The distance between the pipes and cables – 150-200 mm. All this is poured concrete with thickness of 30-50 mm. Now we must decide which floor to choose. If as a floor covering use parquet, in this case it is worth considering some of its features. The temperature of a warm floor when used as flooring lacquered flooring must not exceed 21 degrees.

Electrical House

The easiest way cable – open. The price for such work will be the lowest with all the options listed in this article – as prices for electricity themselves assembly work, and estimates for consumables. But remember that the wiring open for combustible construction – is prohibited. This kind of wiring is suitable for concrete, masonry walls in production, basements, storage rooms. Becoming popular is another way to hold the light in your house – it's kind of old electrical wiring in the roller centers.

The people he called the wiring under the old, in retro. Different original design, circumferential nostalgic about the past. Solid electrical stranded wire laid along the walls and ceilings on insulators with distance from the surface, so that it complies with fire bezopasnosti. electrical wiring in a wooden house. Concealed wiring – padded inside the structural elements of buildings and constructions (walls, floors, foundations, overlap), as well as overlaps in the preparation of the floor, directly under the removable floor.

Electrical wiring is hidden at home, cottage, apartment, office, warehouse running in pipes, flexible metal hoses, ducts, closed channels and cavities of building structures in the render over the furrows, under plaster, as well as zamonolichivaniem in constructions in their manufacture. Hidden inside the electrical wiring in wooden house, the cottage is the subject of heightened danger. But despite this in any home from round, chopped logs, glued, shaped beam can be internal wiring, with must strictly comply with all fire safety requirements. Electrical installations in such buildings it laborious and expensive.

Investigations At Sites Draining

Hydrogeological work and geotechnical testing when shooting are conducted to the extent necessary to justify the reclamation activities and the building structure reclamation system. The total area shooting must be grounded in technical regulations or program of research. Allowed to increase the area of photography compared to the reclaimed area of the object is not more than 1,8 times. It is mandatory to hold Preliminary desk work to assess the materials research of past years, area of study with the objective of the program or technical requirements. Geotechnical and hydrogeological research and studies on the drainage facilities are conducted to determine the causes of waterlogging and temporary excessive moisture, type of water supply in order to select the design decisions on how to drainage area and regulation of water regime. To justify the design solutions for land-reclamation should be examined following the main features of the object: – geomorphology (the structure of floodplains, terraces, valleys, basins, troughs drain; shape and area ratio of low and elevated stations, communications excess moisture from the morphological characteristics of the microrelief, the impact of micro-and macrorelief on waterlogging areas); – geotechnical (lithology and physical and mechanical properties of soils, especially nutrients (peat, sapropel)); – the nature and distribution of geological and engineering-geological processes – hydrological (availability, distribution and depth of aquifers, the hydraulic connection between them and among themselves and with surface water, balance and groundwater regime, their chemical composition, the amplitude of the fluctuations in groundwater level).

Field work must begin with a reconnaissance survey, during which identifies wetlands and redundant, wetlands, examined outcrops, landslide areas, distribution of karst, subsidence and other phenomena, the outputs of groundwater, ravines, etc. Block observations are carried out in two perpendicular directions, taking into account Stretch the major forms of relief, as well as along the river beds, lake and other natural drainage elements. In the process of engineering-geological survey should establish morphogenetic type of relief to which timed swampy land (slope, valleys, plains, etc.), identify the hazardous geological processes. If there are bailing on the territory of the ground-pressure power allowed additional exploration work, the composition and volume of which is justified in each case the program works (technical requirements). Cross-sections perpendicular to the wells should be scheduled during the main geomorphological elements – from the elevated grades (slopes, terraces, etc.) to the receiving water (river, marsh, lake) – a position of extreme well drained outside of the array on the slopes or local watersheds.

The distance between cross-sections should be taken from 500 to 700 m. Well on the alignment should be located at a distance of 300 to 500 meters depending on the geomorphological and geological and hydrogeological conditions. Other distances should be justified in the program or report on research. In the presence of at drainage systems, heavy soils underlain by impermeable, the wells should be drilled on the wing at a depth of 5 m. The number of additional wells in the complex engineering and hydrogeological survey shall not exceed 1.8 observation points (workings) of 1 km2 array drainage for pre-design study, and 2.7 points per 1 km2 array drainage for architectural and construction projects. Well depth is taken as a function of depth aquitard and its power. In case of a pressurized part of the supply wells (40% of the total) should be opened on the roof of the second surface of the aquifer. Depth of the wells should not exceed 35 m.