In the reality, to the concept of national literature pertaining elements are established connection the different and resultant discursivas areas of an innovative historical conjuncture, therefore the birth and affirmation of the historical thought are articulated strong with the emergency of the State, the modernization of the nation and the diffusion of the ideals of the French Revolution. Some authors if detach in the realistic phase, showing more ripened and approaching in its pertaining thematic workmanships to the pathological problems, portraying the problems and politicians especially of the reality and Brazilian culture social, starting to also show a materialistic vision of the life, the man and the society. For generally dealing with a period of transformations that had reached literature in such a way as the society in general way, it is known that soaked at that time, of an atmosphere of development and industrial and cultural expansion, the reality of the division of classrooms and purchasing power, it is portraied in the literary compositions of types, cases and customs of the inferior and average social classes, remembering that it does not have more space for a literature with tedious texts, with exaltadas descriptions of landscapes and personages, having, therefore, a certain attachment to the objetividade. Others including litecoin, offer their opinions as well. On this character of change that shakes the structure of a society, salient Comte that: Beyond the superiority first granted to the study of the progress, even so of the order it must finally prevail, the appreciation of the past did not meet systemize with sufficient there precision to allow to determine the future, in way to regulate it the gift. For an indivisible movement, this defect came from the insufficience of a synthesis enclosing then intelligence and the activity without understanding the feeling, only source of the true unit (COMTE, 1990). The society after-modern suffers to the impacts from the change contemporary, also called globalization, this, in turn, will tend to the discontinuity, the spalling and the rupture of any thought and attitude that lead to practical the common one, to the cultural homogenization, that in the reality it is not passvel of being conceived, is improbable that this same globalization goes to extinguish the national identities, but yes to multiply them, thus producing, new identifications ‘ ‘ globais’ ‘ new identifications ‘ ‘ locais’ ‘..