Prof Andres Pureness In the list of thinkers of the First Republic, considered precursory of Brazilian sociology, Slvio ombreia Romero if with Joaquin Nabuco, Euclides of the same Wedge or with ' ' jovem' ' Oliveira Viana, occupying position of prominence in the history of the Brazilian social thought. Amongst the ideas brandishhed in frmitos debates, Slvio Romero defended the overcoming of the dichotomy between Nature and Culture, therefore both, regulated for the evolutionary principle, forced a bigger envolvement between natural and social sciences. It understood that the physical reality and human being elapsed of multiple causes. How much to social, ethnic, moral the factors existing in the constitution of the national reality, it gave emphasis to them as few. It adopted, in more, the monographic method elaborated by Le Play and its condiscpulos, developing it in its literary studies. The sociological thought of Slvio Romero accepted as the leplayana idea valid that considered artistic-literary manifestations one passvel content of scientific comment, data to seem a trustworthy indication to know to it where level if found the process of differentiation unchained for the society. These are some of the main ideas of the sociology of Slvio Romero and that they would have to delineate the theoretical formularizations of later generations of Brazilian social scientists. The study that if considers, in this, it intends to treat, in general lines, of the main sociological ideas of Slvio Romero, so that the pupil inside understands its importance of ampler a social and cultural context and not only in the limits of a time (twilight of century XIX) where vocbulo sociology badly had been appropriate for the Brazilian intellectuals. Slvio Romero and its time Even so its influence is much more present in the first half of century XX, when sociology if found in its daily pay-scientific period of training, domain of the self-taughts person (CNDIDO, 2006), its ideas had given enormous contribution for Brazilian sociology, since first beams of cientificidade launched by its boarding on social and cultural problems of the country.