Manage anesthesia service with the highest level of surgeons. Doctor Anesthesiologist – resuscitation – the head of the specialty of various levels of medical services or health facilities – a position usually not full-time. What is the role of modern anesthesia in the treatment of a particular surgical patient? In my opinion (and I'm standing up for his more than 20 years), it should not be limited to determining the degree of operational risk and holding of "anesthesia" (the concept is outdated and cut the ear of basic literacy doctor). In 1998, the author of anesthesia language introduced the concept and definition of "surgical aggression." The concept of long perceived a hostile reception, as determined as trauma surgery. And for some reason, surgeons themselves seen not as a "father – a savior," and the role of aggressor. Currently, the phrase stuck in surgical and anesthesia community and is used most often needed, particularly authors, slightly representing its meaning. So, the main task of the anesthesiologist – the resuscitation of major surgery at the present stage of development of medical science considers the development and implementation of perioperative medication protect the patient from surgical aggression. The concept of perioperative medical protection introduced by the author and co-workers in 2002 and includes the full range of diagnostic and treatment interventions in pre-, intra-and postoperative period and to optimize the capacity of the organism autokompensatornyh, prevention and correction of disorders of homeostasis, which developed as a result of surgical aggression and (or) decompensation compromised organs and systems for early rehabilitation of patients and improve treatment outcome.